firm manual november 2005

firm manual november 2005


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firm manual november 2005

You can change your cookie settings at any time. The position in relation to Switzerland is described in We’ll send you a link to a feedback form. It will take only 2 minutes to fill in. Don’t worry we won’t send you spam or share your email address with anyone. The firm serves institutional clients including pension funds, endowments, foundations, foreign governments, and central banks.Bridgewater Associates began as an institutional investment advisory service, graduated to institutional investing, and pioneered the risk parity investment approach in 1996.The principle of separating alpha and beta investments was introduced by Dalio in 1990 and gained the recognition of other equity managers beginning in the year 2000.Retrieved 21 January 2018. United States. The New York Times Company. p. BU1. Retrieved 8 September 2017. Retrieved July 27, 2011. Retrieved March 2, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011. Retrieved 26 March 2010. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011.Retrieved 18 April 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2019. Retrieved April 12, 2010. Retrieved March 18, 2010 June 26, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2011. United States. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 22 March 2010. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-09-24. United States. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 28 October 2011. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2010. Retrieved 2019-11-25. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-230-61401-7. Retrieved July 31, 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2019. New York, N.Y., United States. The New York Times Company. p. B1. Retrieved 10 December 2018. Retrieved 2019-12-04. Retrieved October 28, 2011 New York, N.Y., United States. The New York Times Company. p. A1. Retrieved 7 December 2019. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Most of these methods provide for limited user control.

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For example, the weight placed on recent historical data or the date range of historical data used in the calculations might be specified. The following examples show the calculation procedure for each of the available forecasting methods, given an identical set of historical data. A forecasting method that is appropriate for one product may not be appropriate for another product. It is also unlikely that a forecasting method that provides good results at one stage of a product's life cycle will remain appropriate throughout the entire life cycle. These are Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) and Percent of Accuracy (POA). Both of these performance evaluation methods require historical sales data for a user specified period of time. This period of time is called a holdout period or periods best fit (PBF). The data in this period is used as the basis for recommending which of the forecasting methods to use in making the next forecast projection. This recommendation is specific to each product, and may change from one forecast generation to the next. The two forecast performance evaluation methods are demonstrated in the pages following the examples of the twelve forecasting methods. Use this method with caution, as long range forecasts are leveraged by small changes in just two data points. The equation describes a straight line where Y represents sales, and X represents time. Linear regression is slow to recognize turning points and step function shifts in demand. Linear regression fits a straight line to the data, even when the data is seasonal or would better be described by a curve. When the sales history data follows a curve or has a strong seasonal pattern, forecast bias and systematic errors occur. LSR will define a line for as few as two data points.Second Degree Approximation is similar. This method may be useful when a product is in the transition between stages of a life cycle.

For example, when a new product moves from introduction to growth stages, the sales trend may accelerate. Because of the second order term, the forecast can quickly approach infinity or drop to zero (depending on whether coefficient c is positive or negative). Therefore, this method is useful only in the short term. You specify n in the processing option 7a, the number of time periods of data to accumulate into each of the three points. July through September are added together to create Q2, and October through December sum to Q3. The curve will be fitted to the three values Q1, Q2, and Q3. Both methods multiply sales data from a previous time period by a user specified factor, then project that result into the future. In the Percent Over Last Year method, the projection is based on data from the same time period in the previous year. The Flexible Method adds the capability to specify a time period other than the same period last year to use as the basis for the calculations. For example, specify 1.15 in the processing option 8b to increase the previous sales history data by 15. However, with the Weighted Moving Average you can assign unequal weights to the historical data. The method calculates a weighted average of recent sales history to arrive at a projection for the short term. More recent data is usually assigned a greater weight than older data, so this makes WMA more responsive to shifts in the level of sales. However, forecast bias and systematic errors still do occur when the product sales history exhibits strong trend or seasonal patterns. This method works better for short range forecasts of mature products rather than for products in the growth or obsolescence stages of the life cycle. It results in a stable forecast, but will be slow to recognize shifts in the level of sales.

On the other hand, a small value for n (such as 3) will respond quicker to shifts in the level of sales, but the forecast may fluctuate so widely that production can not respond to the variations. However, instead of arbitrarily assigning weights to the historical data, a formula is used to assign weights that decline linearly and sum to 1.00. The method then calculates a weighted average of recent sales history to arrive at a projection for the short term. This method works better for short range forecasts of mature products rather than for products in the growth or obsolescence stages of the life cycle. In Linear Smoothing the system assigns weights to the historical data that decline linearly. In exponential smoothing, the system assigns weights that exponentially decay. The exponential smoothing forecasting equation is: Exponential smoothing can generate a forecast based on as little as one historical data point. However, Method 12 also includes a term in the forecasting equation to calculate a smoothed trend. The forecast is composed of a smoothed averaged adjusted for a linear trend. When specified in the processing option, the forecast is also adjusted for seasonality. They do not have to add to 1.0. Each forecasting method will probably create a slightly different projection. When thousands of products are forecast, it is impractical to make a subjective decision regarding which of the forecasts to use in your plans for each of the products. You can choose between two performance criteria, Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) and Percent of Accuracy (POA). MAD is a measure of forecast error. POA is a measure of forecast bias. Both of these performance evaluation techniques require actual sales history data for a user specified period of time.There will usually be differences between actual sales data and the simulated forecast for the holdout period.

Multiple forecasts are calculated for the holdout period, and compared to the known sales history for that same period of time. The forecasting method producing the best match (best fit) between the forecast and the actual sales during the holdout period is recommended for use in your plans. This recommendation is specific to each product, and might change from one forecast generation to the next. MAD is a measure of the average magnitude of errors to expect, given a forecasting method and data history. Because absolute values are used in the calculation, positive errors do not cancel out negative errors. When comparing several forecasting methods, the one with the smallest MAD has shown to be the most reliable for that product for that holdout period. When the forecast is unbiased and errors are normally distributed, there is a simple mathematical relationship between MAD and two other common measures of distribution, standard deviation and Mean Squared Error: When forecasts are consistently too high, inventories accumulate and inventory costs rise. When forecasts are consistently two low, inventories are consumed and customer service declines. A forecast that is 10 units too low, then 8 units too high, then 2 units too high, would be an unbiased forecast. The positive error of 10 is canceled by negative errors of 8 and 2. In this situation, it is not so important to eliminate forecast errors as it is to generate unbiased forecasts. However in service industries, the above situation would be viewed as three errors. The service would be understaffed in the first period, then overstaffed for the next two periods. In services, the magnitude of forecast errors is usually more important than is forecast bias. The summation over the holdout period allows positive errors to cancel negative errors. When the total of actual sales exceeds the total of forecast sales, the ratio is greater than 100. Of course, it is impossible to be more than 100 accurate.

When a forecast is unbiased, the POA ratio will be 100. Therefore, it is more desirable to be 95 accurate than to be 110 accurate. The POA criteria select the forecasting method that has a POA ratio closest to 100. Legal Notices. You can find the introduction here. The author noted that, at that time, “New technologies and increased competition are forcing the legal industry to slowly remake itself.” While change remained gradual in the years after that remark, the global coronavirus pandemic has compelled the legal industry to transform virtually overnight. Although we talk about agile working, this shift is driving digital transformation in a way that we could not have anticipated.” I’m a Lean Six Sigma fan and practitioner, but you don’t need a certification to start analyzing your processes and identifying areas for improvement and reinvention. This assumption misses the mark on both parts. Worse, this attitude alienates younger generations who understand that work can, in fact, happen anywhere, and simultaneously demeans more seasoned employees who believe they should have earned greater trust by now. While current shelter-in-place orders have forced a temporary cessation in this approach to legal work, the mindset underlying it persists. With modern document management technology, you can access your documents and client files in the cloud and effectively serve your clients from home, on the road, or wherever else you happen to be. This process improvement won’t just help law firms weather the coronavirus crisis; it will also help them adapt to the new generation of Millennials in the workforce. In recent years, lawyers have developed a tendency to overemphasize email in lieu of actual two-way conversation. Many also still work as if they’re being paid by the word. This approach is inefficient for lawyers and clients alike. Clients do not want to read lengthy memos.

They want concise answers to their real concerns—which may or may not be reflected in the question they asked. Those conversations are an opportunity for lawyers to connect with their clients on a more human level and deepen their relationships. Just as importantly, lawyers can use those exchanges to drill down into the client’s presenting question or concern. What’s motivating the client to reach out. What do they need to know and understand. Instead of just answering the question the client asked, you can truly add value by understanding how they will use the information provided. Perhaps a one-paragraph executive summary that can form part of a board deck is more effective, instead of the nine-page opinion underlying your conclusion. If they want to know more, they’ll ask. They’re used to high-volume printers and scanners, both operated by administrative assistants. Their offices have dual screens, bulky outdated computers, and an IT staff just down the hall who can help them troubleshoot issues. Your home office is almost certainly devoid of these resources. If you’re now overwhelmed with menial tasks because you haven’t automated those tasks, it’s a sure sign that you’re overdue to update both your technology and your processes. Frankly, automation isn’t optional at this point. The result of all this economic upheaval and uncertainty is that some people aren’t working at all, while others are trying to do twice as much with half the staff. In this climate, no one has time for slow, tedious, manual drudgery. It’s been annoying all along, but now it’s simply unsustainable. Automating repetitive tasks lets teams get more done faster so they can keep their business moving. This also allows clients and lawyers to minimize their low-value check-in interactions and ensure that they’re getting a higher value out of their conversations.

Lawyers typically shuffle boxes of papers, courier packets back and forth to collect physical signatures, and stay at the office into the wee hours trying to assemble complete closing books. Now, courts are shuttered and many firms that relied on paper have been unable to close their deals or make any meaningful forward progress. Digital transactions are what’s enabled us to keep completing deals despite the disruption in our daily lives. With this free version, you’ll be able to create digital checklists, assemble closing books in the cloud, and obtain e-signatures—with no face-to-face contact, no paper, no couriers, no mailing, and no trips into the office. Don’t let outdated, inefficient processes limit your ability to work in these challenging times or hinder the outcomes you can achieve for your clients. In his role, he has helped some of the most prestigious and largest international firms gain access to legal solutions that help their lawyers create higher quality work, faster. Abhijat has worked for a number of large multi-national corporations across a range of sectors, and holds a bachelor’s degree in Forensic Science and Neuroscience from the University of Keele, UK. He also writes the blog Media Law and cohosts the legal affairs podcast Lawyer2Lawyer It is written by Robert Ambrogi, a lawyer and journalist who has been writing and speaking about legal technology, legal practice and legal ethics for more than two decades. Powered By LexBlog. With that challenge, Firestop Contractors International Association (FCIA) Standards Committee Chair Don Sabrsula (2000-2005), president of FireSafe of Houston, worked with industry contractors and manufacturers to assemble and ballot the first standard for firestopping inspection. It is designed to be part of the total quality protocol needed for zero-tolerance firestop systems installation.

Firestop manufacturers test their products, manufactured to strict tolerances, and publish systems suitable for use as firestops in the Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL), Omega Point Laboratories, Inc. (OPL), Warnock Hersey International (WHI), and Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FM) approvals directories. Later, ASTM E2174-01 was updated to ASTM E2174-04. The standard then became augmented with one for inspection of joint systems for walltops, expansion and construction joints, plus perimeter fire protection: ASTM E2393-04, Standard Practice for On-Site Inspection of Installed Fire Resistive Joint Systems and Perimeter Fire Barriers. The DRI passes an industry test based on the Firestop Industry Manual of Practice (MOP) tested systems selection and the FM 4991 standard. The DRI manages the firestop contracting firms’ processes, policies, and procedures to achieve installed firestop systems that meet the tested and listed system requirements published in testing directories. Follow-up audits are done yearly by FM, with the same destructive testing employed by FM personnel. The FM 4991 program is quite affordable for a contractor.On April 27, 2006, UL held its first testing of DRIs who would manage newly qualified contractor firms by UL at the FCIA Education and Committee Action Conference. Another testing opportunity will be held at the Firestop Industry Conference and Trade Show, Charleston, SC, November 8-10, 2006. Both the FM 4991 and UL program offer audit inspections of the firestop contractors’ quality processes, with field verification during an audit. Specialty firestop contractors now have a way to separate themselves from others who have not embraced the quality process. Most importantly, contractors are paying attention to fire and life safety through this quality process,” said Gleeson.

The firm’s organization processes are reviewed from the time the estimate takes place to project award, through communication to the field, then installation and inspection of the work. We made many changes to what we do and how we performed.Many policies are required by either FM or UL, but each firm is unique in how it selects systems, communicates the appropriate systems to the field, and then ensures that the firestopping is installed to tested and listed system standards. Each firm will have its own way of handling the quality process. It is the basis of the free enterprise system that each quality program would be individual because the way a firm is organized to execute a contracted firestopping project can be its competitive advantage. ASTM E2174 and ASTM E2393 can be used without a specialty firestop contractor or an FM 4991-approved or UL Qualified Firestop Contractor on projects that use the “whoever pokes the hole, fills it” protocol. Inspectors tell FCIA that inspection costs rise dramatically with multiple trades and varied field applications involved. The amount charged for inspection can be staggering. Investment in the correct contractor, with processes that result in documented systems installed in the field, means that value is received for products, systems, and services. The inspection agency will examine penetration firestopping in accordance with ASTM E2174, Standard Practice for On-Site Inspection of Installed Fire Stops, and ASTM E2393. The inspection agency is to examine firestopping and determine, in general, that firestopping has been installed in compliance with requirements of a tested and listed firestop system, and that the installation process conforms to FM 4991. The contents of this website and Insulation Outlook Magazine may not be reproduced in any means, in whole or in part, without the prior written permission of the publisher and NIA.

Any unauthorized duplication is strictly prohibited and would violate NIA’s copyright and may violate other copyright agreements that NIA has with authors and partners. Every effort will be made to avoid the use or mention of specific product brand names in featured magazine articles. When making legal and safety decisions, always contact your own experts to get guidance on your unique situation. The committee meets regularly with FM, UL and IAS regarding the routine updating of the credentialing programs for firestop contractors and inspection agencies. As a result, specifications requesting these FM 4991 Approved and UL Qualified Contractors is appearing worldwide. See the Inspector Accreditation page for more details. Look for an update at the Spring Education and Committee Action Conference. These improvements would focus the programs in actual field audits and ongoing firestopping maintenance for increased reliability of installed firestop systems. Meetings with FM recently found that: FM has agreed to allow Firestop Inspection Agency Personnel (as defined by International Building Code) to take the FM Firestop Exam. UL has agreed to help FCIA with education for ICC Chapter AHJ’s to gain support for code proposal for UL Qualified Firestop Contractors. A sample Management System was developed in 2010, available in FCIA Members Only Section. Join now! Meetings with FM recently found that: FM Contractors now are over 60 in the US and Middle East. FM’s Presentation in Dubai at the FCIA Middle East Seminar was well received. FCIA expanded the pages for FM 4991 Information and Contractors with QA Manual and Approval resources. UL has agreed to help FCIA with education for the ICC Code proposal for UL Qualified Firestop Contractors. FCIA’s Accreditation Committee has presented several education programs for the UL Firestop exam both in person and via webinar. They are available on in the Members Only Section.

Meetings with FM recently found that: FCIA’s Education Programs help contractors pass the FM Firestop Exam, and become FM 4991 Approved Firestop Contractors. FM Approved Contractors are available thorughout the US, and in the Middle East. FM Held a spec on their FM Facility in Massachusetts, while architects acceptance is growing as well nationwide on Education and Healthcare Occupancies. FM is looking to expand their reach into other contractor industry programs. UL has agreed to help FCIA grow worldwide. FCIA’s Accreditation Committee has presented excellent programs to help contractors pass the DRI Exam, and become UL Qualified Firestop Contractors. FCIA’s Accreditation Committee to meet with FM in Boston in March and again in Seattle in April, 2008. Most importantly, the first audit is complete, and Gleeson-Powers, Inc., Franklin, MA is the first UL Qualified Firestop Contractor. In the future, FCIA will need Additional Educated FCIA Member, UL Qualified Presenters to educate on behalf of FCIA at various events.The UL Total Fire Protection Systems Symposium aims to educate about all types of fire protection, including fire and smoke resistance rated effective compartmentation, sprinklers, alarms and detection systems. Feel free to contact the Chair, Aedan Gleeson, should you want to get involved. There are currently two major firms in the quality auditing business, verifying the quality process of Firestop Contractors, FM Global’s Approvals Division, and Underwriters Laboratories. This program, an ISO 9000 type quality management system for the firestopping contractor, was specially built for the construction subcontracting community and has been in service since 2001. In 2006, FM offered its’ staff webinar firestopping industry education, and tips about how to audit a firestopping contractor firm. FCIA staff continues to provide educational resources to FM Approvals for training of the auditors that review firestopping firms.

FCIA continues to work with Architectural, Specification, building code and fire marshal communities to educate about the importance to fire and life safety by using a firestop contractor. This new program adds another credible name in addition to FM to fire and life safety protection through the broad reach of UL throughout the world. These programs, the FCIA Firestop Education Program and Total Fire Protection Systems Symposium, have been well received by audiences throughout North America. Watch for further details about an inspector credential program as they unfold on this website. Contractor, manufacturer and associate members from throughout the world are welcome to participate. Below is a summary of other important happenings from FCIA’s Accreditation Committee. Look for new FM Approved Contractors to supply Canada’s specifications requirements. See Presentations for full description of this new construction industry trend. Contractors can use these as further proof of their commitment to the quality process. This new program will add value to existing programs as it adds more credibility to an already strong name in the marketplace. Visit FCIA’s Events page for more info. See FCIA’s Marketing Committee Pages for more info about where these articles appeared. Plus, cooperation with FCIA’s Marketing Committee to grow awareness about the program meant excellent exposure. The Inspector Qualification Standard discussions are also underway. Don Sabrsula joined the teleconference and offerred assistance to Randy based on his experience with the ASTM E 2174. Info can be found at, meeting notices. The ASTM site provides info on hotel, etc. At 2:00, the Inspection Standard will be introduced by FCIA to the E6 Servicablity committee where we would participate as chair, if elected. Don Sabrsula mentioned he’d help Randy as well. Questions come through the FCIA Board, architects, fire marshal’s, code officials and other interested industry participants.

There will be a few test questions that will be added to the Las Vegas FM Test, with a totally new test for the 3 year “DRI Renewal Test”, which takes place in Orlando, November, 2003. The MOP may need updating to reflect the test questions as well. This is resulting in more specifications for FM 4991 around the country.Currently, we have 16 members who have become FM Approved nationwide, with many more in the process. FM 4991 Contractor Approval offers firestop contractors value through. This manual was recently sent to thousands of building owners and architects. Major specification consultants, nationwide are expected to be at our introduction. Now we need you to help make it a success. It’s coming to you soon through specifications. As Aedan Gleeson states, “let’s get dressed up and go to the party by getting FM 4991 Approved”. For the best Firestop Contractors, Associates, Manufacturers, Consultants, Distributors, Reps and more, Member List is the place for you. From Firestopping Contractors to Special Inspection Agencies, Firestop System Manufacturers to Firestop product Distributors, FCIA Members have the expertise you need.All rights reserved. Tobacco and cotton crops are also expected to improve and sugar cane production isPrices in the north may improve during the year owing to stronger demand from neighbouring Malawi.The Mission evaluated food cropStaff from National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC) and Ministry of Industry and Commerce (MIC),A meeting with donors and NGOs also provided valuable information,The districts to be visited were carefully selected using a range of criteria including agro-ecological,In each province and district, the teams met with administrative authorities andThe Mission also visited markets and interviewed a wide range of traders.

Information on growingThe work of the Mission was complemented with concurrentlyThe paddy crop is estimated to be 2 percent less than last yearHowever, in the north, although the rains wereIn the central region, where cereal production varied from above to below last year accordingDuring the past year an independent review of cassava production confirmed the 2004 CFSAMAt the timeStronger demand from bordering southern provinces of Malawi, where harvests have been reduced,Already the Mission observed substantial flowsTotal informal maize exports between July 2004 to April 2005 from Mozambique toThis is in addition to the ongoing. Where it is possible food assistanceChronic malnutrition rates are estimated at 36 percent and are particularlyAn integrated UN response should thus be developed to address the current food insecurityAs a result, the economy is diversified,The sector,Under a povertyThe economic reforms havePer capita income in US dollars has increasedInflation, which fell to 15 percent in 1997 from over 50 percent the previousExports of goods have increasedThis may slash the fixed price by over one-third affecting the value of sugar exports drastically.This includes the Mozal AluminiumAlthough poverty remains high by all standards, some progress in poverty reduction hasA recent official study on poverty incidence suggests that theResults of the study also show that poverty is higher in the southern provinces, where rates have actuallyFarming is conducted by some 3.